Colombia has a tropical climate that favors its soils, making them apt to produce any type of food. In addition, it is one of the countries with the most water sources, which makes its conservation essential. As a developing country, there are a series of problems that arise in the most vulnerable and poor communities; These problems are deficient of governmental support for the important action that the farmer performs.
In addition, there is a deficiency in food security making it difficult to obtain nutritious and safe food that meets the needs of society; fact that directly influences the food sovereignty that each people must have. Added to this is the inefficiency in the chain of product commercialization. Factors that are reflected in the economy and lead to low standards in the quality of life and basic needs of any family.
It is important to mention that these inconveniences have a direct impact on the wear and loss of natural resources. To counteract this action, communities can be provided with very useful tools such as environmental education based on sustainable development; this alternative will allow to obtain more prosperous communities.
This is the reason why the Piedemonte Latin American Foundation intends to execute a project called "Environmental Zoning of the La Chichaca Microbasin Located in the Municipality of Aguazul- Casanare". Where a sustainable model such as agroforestry systems (SAF) will be implemented, promoting advanced technology as a strategic tool for the sustainable development of a region, supporting the participative inclusion of communities in the solution of problems.
It is carried out in 5 stages
1. WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL ZONING: Strategic ecosystems are identified, geographic areas sensitive to changes and damages caused by the population that is located within the area of influence of the micro-basin, as well as the possible natural events, the relevant biophysical conditions of the environment, the ecosystem service it provides is recognized. These parameters are achieved by knowing with the geographic information obtained from the GIS (geographic information systems) with the processing of images it is possible to make maps that identify the aforementioned, this is how the current and trend situation of the area of the micro basin. Finally, good decisions will be taken with regard to sustainable projects, since they will provide an efficient and adequate use of the land, avoiding losses, damage and expansion of the agricultural frontier.
2. SOCIALIZATION TO THE COMMUNITY: We work with the community jointly to obtain information and propose the possible action scenarios that will allow us to improve our economic income by making known the current and tendential status of the area as well as the intentions of the project.
3. EDUCATION: Environmental education will be provided on topics such as sustainable alternatives for agricultural production, agroforestry systems SAF, clean production and management of solid resources for compost, elimination of pests and diseases in crops and the marketing of products will be defined.
4. PLANNING OF THE SYSTEMS: With this diagnosis and a complete investigation, the environmental zoning map was generated, where the type of production was decided according to the characteristics of each zone within the studied area, resulting in the following:
4.1. Area with special regulations: in the special case of la chichaca this area only corresponds to the protective round of the riverbed, this round is made up of native vegetation; in the areas where there is no vegetation, reseeding with native trees of the region favoring soil maintenance and water conservation as Fabaceae family plants
4.2. Areas of environmental importance: this category is assigned to those areas that are confirmed as forest, and are considered of high ecosystemic value in the microbasin, in addition to being located at the source of the river.
4.3. Area of rehabilitation: corresponds to vulnerable lands before erosion, characterized by the absence of vegetation and difficult structural conditions of the soil, in this sense are necessary recovery and conservation activities, so that reforestation activities will be carried out with native legume species of the region that by its characteristics managed to recover the soil, avoid landslides and protection of water.
4.4. Agrosilvopastoral areas: are the areas that are in acceptable conditions, being suitable for animal production, but with conservation activities. This zone favors those villagers whose economic activity depends on livestock. It will take advantage of the arboreal species that exist naturally and will be reinforced in an arrangement of live fences with leguminous plants arboreas and forages delimiting the land for the protection and rotation of the animals, the live fences will provide high protein food for the animals.
4.5. Areas of conservation agroforestry: these areas can be used on a small scale in subsistence crops by small families, who can consider this activity to improve their diet. Based on the climatic and geological characteristics of the area, there is a potential for the production of coffee, cocoa and plantain implemented in SAF with existing arboreal plants in the area of production, simultaneously to the crops will be implemented hydroponic and land plots of land that guarantee the products for the sustenance of the peasant family.
4.6. Recovery area for multiple use: this represents those lands that have a level of damage in the average soil and can be recovered for future agricultural conservation activities.
5. TOOLS: Each rural family will be provided with a design of a production system according to their needs and the availability of land, in addition to the necessary plant material. Finally, a constant follow-up that will allow to maintain the project, with this the farmers will take advantage of maximize their resources and optimize land use.
With the application and implementation of this project, he hopes that this model of sustainable production, supports rural development, influences the protection of natural resources, improves the quality of life of families. From the reception that is obtained is intended to implement and expand to more municipalities in Colombia and the world.
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