treatment against insects
All the insects breathe through some small holes on the sides of the body, connected to a network of tubes. Their elongated heart pumps.
In warehouses we have a number of pests that can qualitatively impair the harvest or, in some cases, compromise it altogether.
The concept of vacuum bags is well known but their use is limited by the risk of putting in them grains that are not well dried and favor mold.
The solution is to use the polyethylene bag with the vacuum valve and jute bags as support, only for the treatment against the pests.
The cereals will be put in the vacuum bag in turn and after three days they will be changed. In three days, it is not possible to evaporate enough grain water to initiate molding. In three days all the insects die in vacuum, even in less time if there is a higher amount for treatment.
In this way all grains will be treated in the same vacuum bag. Vacuum grain treatment will be done after drying. When insects appear or periodically, the treatment of killing pest by vacuum can be repeated by simple, inexpensive method and no harmful chemicals. Remember, agricultural products in the target area are not in large quantities and can be vacuum-treated.
absence of air insects die and the problem of this challenge is solved. Small
amounts of cereal can be stored in vacuum bags.
This challenge targets is people in extreme poverty areas. That's why I chose simple, inexpensive, affordable solutions, and easy to understand and accept. All the products required for this challenge can be ordered on the market.
Agricultural products in the target area are not in large quantities to be stored in silos, but there are many sorts, according to the food habits of the geographical area, as shown in Fig1.
To prevent the development of pests that may compromise a harvest, double
sacks will be used as in Fig. 2.
Inside will be a polyethylene bag and outside will be a jute or raff bag.
During long-term storage, pests develop. Grains can be stored after harvesting in jute bags until they lose their moisture. Keeping cereals in vacuum bags is common in supermarkets.
After drying, the polyethylene bag will be bound as in Fig. 3 to be sealed.
The novelty is that a similar valve will be attached to the polyethylene bag with the vacuum bags for laundry of Fig. 4. With the help of a manual or electric pump, the air will be removed from the polyethylene bag.
The jute bag will also be bonded which provides mechanical resistance for transport, stacking, storage as in Fig. 5.
The two bags version is feasible in
disadvantaged areas because in the event of a warp, only the polyethylene bag
will be replaced, with lower costs.
In the same disadvantaged area there may also be situations when crops will be good and will require large storage space.
In this situation, the same concept can be used bags, but with large dimensions as in Fig. 6 and Fig. 6.1.
After drying cereals, the polyethylene bag will be hermetically sealed and through the valve the air will be extracted. The insects die in the vacuum.
For situations where production is exceptional, silos made from big bags can be used, as in Fig. 7 for save production.
How does wheat pest develop?
Pest (Calandra granaria) has been known since Antiquity and one of the most important pests of food. It is particularly prevalent in countries with temperate climates. Appear everywhere, attack grain stores, mills, warehouses, etc. It is a dark brown-colored cockroach, lighter at the end of the two previous wings.
The first segment of the chest is provided with many elongated points, and the anterior wings have longitudinal stripes and dots. The body is cylindrical, 4-5 mm long, and the membrane wings are rudimentary. Pest wheat is used to winter in the adult stage in various places inside the warehouse, in the cracks of the walls or wooden floors, and in the larval stage it is wintering in the cereal grains.
Spring, when the temperature is approx. 11ºC adults begin their activity, feeding on cereal grains (wheat, rice, oats, corn) and other stored products. After a short period when the temperature reaches approx. 17ºC begins to plow, so in order to lay eggs, the female is accustomed to the mandibles at the top of the rostrum with a small hole in the wheat grain, in which it puts one egg. Generally, the egg is transparent, oval shaped, 0.6 mm long and 0.3 mm wide. The female covers the hole with the egg deposited with a mucilaginous fluid that secretes it through the genital glands and which, in contact with the air, strengthens so that the place where the egg was deposited is observed quite hard with the naked eye. In larger grains such as corn, two eggs are placed in the same grain.
The egg laying period may take four or five months - during which one female lodges approx. 300 eggs. After a very short incubation time of only 8-10 days, larvae develop inside the grains. They have no legs, they have a white body and a brown head, and the abdomen has the first segments split into three lobes and the last bilobate. Larvae reach maturity after 20-40 days, depending on the humidity and temperature conditions, and their length is 3 mm. After 7-10 days the larvae turn into nymphs inside the grains and are 3-5 mm long.
Pest of wheat mainly attacks cereals (wheat, barley, rye, corn etc.) and vegetable products. It can also feed on pasta, pasta, flour, but does not lay eggs in these products. The larvae of these pests consume all the cereal grains, leaving only the outer shell of them. The strong invasion of pest results in the clotting and molding of grains, the attacked berries contain insect excreta and are therefore no longer good for consumption.
The degree of infestation is classified as follows:
infestation of category I - (1-5) lambs / kg of cereal;
infestation of category II (6-10) lambs / kg of cereals;
infestation of category III more than 10 bears / kg of cereals:
In conclusion, the treatment of pests will begin in spring at temperatures of 15 degrees Celsius when the pests become active and lay eggs.
Without air the insects can not breathe and die.Vacuum contraction also destroys larvae.
If you have any questions