To date, transrectal palpation is the cheapest and most convenient detection technique for the diagnosis of internal diseases, gynecological conditions and artificial insemination in dairy and meat producing cows. Generally carried out 28 days after the assisted insemination of the bovine, and combined with the use of ultrasound and echography techniques to increase its efficiency. The importance of the development of a diagnostic device mediated by lateral flow immunoassays lies in the need to improve the response time of the detection of pregnancy status. Currently, there are no methods capable of diagnosing pregnancy before the 30 days of open period, which produces a series of days of uncertainty, where there is a risk of maintenance of non-pregnant cows. Currently, the late response of conventional detections usually delays even up to 60 days in regions without sufficient specialists such as the south of the country; the cost of maintenance of non-pregnant cows in the days of uncertainty "open days", represents a loss of resources of great impact within the livestock industry, with a minimum economic maintenance, being for livestock of pasture (free grazing) $ 80 pesos per day per non-pregnant cow. Climbing to a scenario in which 30% of the cows of a ranch such as Zaragoza (125,000) is not pregnant, produces a daily loss of three million pesos in maintenance of non-pregnant cows, equal to non-producers. For 28 open days, we talked about more than 84 million pesos lost in the days of uncertainty.
The early and accurate diagnosis of pregnancy or non-pregnancy is critical for efficient livestock management, especially in the dairy industry, where profitability depends to a large extent on the reproductive efficiency of cows. Early identification of non-pregnant cattle before the next expected estrus cycle is vital for maintaining a desirable calving interval in both beef and dairy cattle. Currently, in the north of the state there has been a great shortage of expert probes, with approximately 5 probes for every 100 producer breeders. This, together with the desire for accelerated identification of bovine producers, has strengthened the search for reliable biochemical methods and rapid results as an alternative solution to transrectal palpation. An example of this being the hormone detection tests or specific pregnancy-inducing molecules in blood. However, the limitation on the response time persists, being mostly after 28 days post-insemination, the period in which bovine pregnancy can be detected using this type of diagnosis; likewise, the possibility of false positives and noncompetitive costs in comparison with traditionally used methods.
SALI-bar is a home test of molecular diagnosis for the early detection of pregnant cattle. By means of a rapid sampling of bovine saliva, a colorimetric reaction is produced which indicates the positive pregnancy status. If no color occurs, its a negative state. It works by means of detection of early gestation biomarker. The detection by means of SALI-bar displaces the use of probes and specialists. By producing a qualitative result it is easy to read and by requiring a saliva sample, it is easy to use. SALI-bar is a friendly and non-invasive diagnostic method. Completely eliminating the stress caused by tubing and palpation for the classical detection of gestation in bovines, reducing the risk of spontaneous abortions. It also reduces the number of "open" days by accelerating the process of re-insemination of non-pregnant cattle and reducing the cost of maintenance on "empty cows". Through SALI-bar we will give an added value to the reproductive rate of livestock producers, increasing the profitability of their businesses, this returns to sustainable livestock, by increasing the rate of births per year from the same bovine population. SALI-bar will allow the detection of cows in their reproductive limit, cows that no longer have the ability to get pregnant, as well as confirming that no pregnant cow is slaughtered.
SALI-bar, as a Lateral Flow Assay, will perform a rapid test of immunochromatography where the protein or analyte of interest is immobilized within test strips, subsequently, by means of capillarity, the analyte moves to the test zone and the control zone, both being regions of the strip that are loaded with the type of antibody or detection molecule necessary to make the diagnosis. In this way, two coloration marks are obtained, one from the control and another from the diagnosis, with a double band result, being the first one to control antibody binding and second indicating pregnancy early and effectively. SALI-bar will use first level molecular diagnostics for the detection of proteins present in saliva during the hormonal production of the cow when pregnancy occurs. By constructing a detection method based on the hormonal behavior of cattle, different hormonal indicators will be recognized in the same sample, thus avoiding false positives. We will use bidirectional detection for the complete and accurate detection of hormonal inducers in saliva. In this way, SALI-bar will be able to efficiently detect said proteins without the need for a large sample or subjecting the bovine to invasive and stressful sampling during the detection process. SALI-bar innovates within the livestock sector with a new form of detection in saliva, being faster than its competition; with a sampling and reaction result in less than 2 minutes and an earlier response, starting 5 days after insemination of the bovine. Reducing the days of uncertainty from 28 to 5 days.
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